Inhe was appointed Captain-General of Famagusta in Cyprus and led the Venetian resistance to the Ottoman conquest that began in He was gruesomely killed in August after the Ottomans took the city, the fall of which signalled the end of Western presence in the Mediterranean island for the next three centuries.
He was born in Venice. After a short stint as lawyer inBragadin pursued a career in the navy, being entrusted with several posts on the Venetian galleys. Once back in Venice Bragadin was pressed into the city's magistrates; in and later in he was made a galley governor, without, though, having occasion to actually assume command of a ship. In he was elected as Captain of the Kingdom of Cyprus and moved to Famagusta, then a rich port, where he assumed civil governorship over the whole island, well aware that a decisive clash with the Ottoman fleet was imminent.
Bragadin worked hard to fortify Famagusta thoroughly; the introduction of gunpowder meant that scientifically-planned fortifications with solid walls were needed. So the harbour was endowed with strong defenses, such as the Martinengo bastion, an excellent example of modern fortification granting easy defense on both sides of its walls.
The Turks landed at Cyprus on July 3, Nicosia fell in two months' time and its garrison was slaughtered. Famagusta came under siege in September; the Ottoman forces kept pressure on for months, while their artillery relentlessly pounded the city's bulwarks.
According to Venetian chroniclers whose numbers are treated with some skepticism by modern scholarshipabout 6, garrison troops stood against someTurks with 1, cannons, backed by about ships enforcing a naval blockade to stave off reinforcements and victuals.
The besieged garrison of Famagusta put up a heroic struggle lasting well beyond the most optimistic assumptions, against far superior enemy numbers and without any hope of help from the motherland. Furthermore the Turks were employing new tactics. The entire belt of walls surrounding the town and the exterior plain was filled with earth up to the top of the fortifications.
In the meantime a number of tunnels were dug out towards and under the city walls to undermine and breach them. In July, the Turks eventually breached the fortifications and their forces broke into the citadel, being repulsed only at the cost of heavy losses. With provender and ammunition running out, on 31 July Bragadin had to agree to a surrender. Some researchers such as Helen Lessore speculate that Bragadin's flaying provided the inspiration for this painting. Famagusta's defenders made terms with the Ottomans before the city was taken by force, since the traditional laws of war allowed for negotiation before the city's defenses were successfully breached, whereas after a city fell by storm all lives and property in the city would be forfeit.
The Ottoman commander generously agreed that, in return for the city's surrender, all Westerners in the city could exit under their own flag and be guaranteed safe passage to Crete; Greeks could leave immediately, or wait two years to decide whether to remain in Famagusta under Ottoman rule, or depart the city for any destination of their choice.
For the next four days, evacuation proceeded smoothly. Then, at the surrender ceremony where Bragadin offered the vacated city to Mustafathe Ottoman general, after initially receiving him with every courtesy, began behaving erratically, accusing him of murdering Turkish prisoners and hiding munitions.
Suddenly, Mustafa pulled a knife and cut off Bragadin's right ear, then ordered his guards to cut off the other ear and his nose. There followed a massacre of all Christians still in the city, with Bragadin himself most brutally abused. After being left in prison for two weeks, his earlier wounds festering, he was "dragged round the walls with sacks of earth and stone on his back; next, tied to a chair, he was hoisted to the yardarm of the Turkish flagship and exposed to the taunts of the sailors.
Finally he was taken to the place of execution in the main square, tied naked to a column, and flayed alive. The macabre trophy, together with the severed heads of general Alvise Martinengo, Gianantonio Querini and castellan Andrea Bragadin, was hoisted upon the masthead pennant of the personal galley of the Ottoman commander, Amir al-bahr Mustafa Pasha, to be brought to Constantinople as a gift for Sultan Selim II. Bragadin's skin was later purloined from the Constantinople's arsenal in by the young Venetian seaman, Girolamo Polidori, who brought it back to Venice.
The skin was preserved first in the church of San Gregoriothen interred in the Basilica di San Giovanni e Paoloa traditional burial place of the doges, where it still is. Bragadin's fame rests upon the incredible resistance that he made against the vastly superior besieging forces.
From a military point of view, the besieged garrison's perseverance required a massive effort by the Ottoman Turks, who were so heavily committed that they were unable to redeploy in time when the Holy League built up the fleet later victorious against the Muslim power at Lepanto.
Historians to this day debate just why Venice did not send help to Bragadin from SoudaCrete. It is alleged that some Venetians thought about putting their limited military assets to better use in the forthcoming clash, already in sight, which would climax in the Battle of Lepanto.
When news of Bragadin's agonizing death reached Venice, he was regarded as a martyr and his story galvanized Venetian soldiers in the fleet of the Holy League. The Venetian seamen went on to fight with greater zeal than any of the other combatants at the decisive Battle of Lepanto where an Ottoman fleet was crushed by the combined force of much of Western Europe.He was also an essayist and the screenwriter of a number of war films.
He was a direct descendant of the 16th-century Venetian commander Marco Antonio Bragadin. Besides dealing with specialist topics, in he wrote the educational work Che ha fatto la Marina? He was also the advisor, screenwriter, production manager, consultant and assistant director on four s Italian war films — three directed by Duilio Coletti I sette dell'Orsa maggioreDivisione Folgore and La grande speranza and one by Antonio Leonviola Siluri umani From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Marcantonio Bragadin disambiguation.Episode 4 Marcantonio Bragadin, last defender of Cyprus, Venetian Hero and Martyr
Archived from the original on Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title link. Categories : births deaths Regia Marina personnel of World War II Italian military historians 20th-century Italian screenwriters People from Rome Italian essayists Male essayists Italian male screenwriters 20th-century essayists Italian male non-fiction writers. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Italiano Edit links.Marcantonio Bragadin was the lead ship of her class of two submarines built for the Regia Marina Royal Italian Navy during the late s. The boats participated in the Second World War and was discarded in The Bragadin -class submarines were essentially minelaying versions of the earlier Pisani class. They shared that class's problems with stability and had to be modified to correct those problems after completion.
They displaced metric tons long tons surfaced and 1, metric tons 1, long tons submerged. As built the submarines were In the stern was shortened and the boats were bulged to improve their stability. Their crew numbered 56 officers and enlisted men. They could reach The boats were armed with four internal In the stern were two tubes which could accommodate a total of 16 or 24 naval mines, depending on the type.
Their anti-aircraft armament consisted of two Marcantonio Bragadin was laid down by Cantieri navali Tosi di Taranto at their Taranto shipyard on 3 Februarylaunched on 21 July and completed on 16 November From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Bragadin -class submarine. Filippo Corridoni Marcantonio Bragadin. Preceded by: Pisani class Followed by: Pietro Micca. List of submarines of Italy.
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Publications by typology Articolo su rivista. Bragadin; M. Grillo; E. Agostinelli; A.August 17th, Headsman. Marco Antonio Bragadin English Wikipedia entry Italian — or Marcantonio Bragadin — was the captain of Famagusta as an Ottoman Empire near the peak of its power began to wrest Cyprus from eight decades of Venetian control.
Marcantonio Bragadin (admiral)
The Turks sacked the wealthy Cypriot capital Nicosia in Septemberslaughtering or enslaving the inhabitants. Bragadin was having none of it. I have seen your letter. For nearly a year, they repelled the siege ; starving and exhausted, they at last accepted a merciful surrender only to have the entire garrison slain the link is in Italian at the beginning of this month.
Special torments were reserved for the general who had given them such trouble. One can see here, of course, the narrative of East vs. West in a war for civilization itselfalthough one should observe that the overthrow of Catholic hegemony on Cyprus restored the privileges of the Orthodox church.
But the fall of Cyprus was itself the backstory for one of the pivotal naval battles of the age two months later, the Battle of Lepantoat which a league of Mediterranean powers including Venice decisively checked Ottoman influence at sea, pre-empting a likely invasion of Italy.
Marcantonio Bragadin (generale)
Bragadin, for his part, became a potent symbol blending civic and religious martyrdom in what turns out to be post-Lepanto a victorious cause. One might say that he fulfilled a need. Cultures which have drawn nourishment from their legendary martyrs feel a need to prolong the spectacle of their suffering.
They hark back to the desire to keep the dying man with them; and the memory of this desire strengthens their tales of holy victimhood, dramatizes them, keeps them alive. It has reached high points in moments when Catholic doctrines and practices have felt most dramatically threatened. He seemed to make those sufferings real and explicit, lifting them out of their legendary fogginess.
Nor was the fulfillment merely conceptual. According to this page on Rome tourist destinationsthe painting of St. Tags:august 17famagustamarcantonio bragadinmarco antonio bragadinselim iist. Do you know that the Italian commander you are proud of is giving orders to the Turkish prisoners in the same way that he is taken captive and that the heads and ears he applies are used to cover his skin.
It is only by creating stupid legends. The same was done to him.Nicosia cadde in due soli mesi e la guarnigione fu massacrata. A comandare la difesa di Famagosta si trovavano il provveditore Marcantonio Bragadin, coadiuvato da Lorenzo Tiepolo, capitano di Pafo, e il generale Astorre Baglioni.
Ai circa 6. Gli storici discutono sul motivo del disimpegno della Serenissima rispetto alle promesse di inviare aiuti al Bragadin, da la Sudasull'isola di Creta. Bragadin venne imprigionato a tradimento e mutilato al viso gli vennero mozzate ambedue le orecchie e il nasoquindi rinchiuso per dodici giorni in una minuscola gabbia lasciata al sole, con pochissima acqua e cibo. Le sue membra squartate vennero distribuite tra i vari reparti dell'esercito e la pelle, riempita di paglia e ricucita, venne rivestita delle insegne militari e portata a cavallo di un bue in corteo per Famagosta.
Il macabro trofeo, insieme con le teste del generale Alvise Martinengo, del generale Astorre Baglioni, di Gianantonio Querini e del castellano Andrea Bragadin, venne issato sul pennone di una galea e portato a Costantinopoli.
La pelle di Bragadin fu trafugata nel dall'arsenale di Costantinopoli da Girolamo Polidori, giovane marinaio veneziano; fu portata a Venezia e conservata nella chiesa di San Gregorio per essere trasferita nel in quella dei Santi Giovanni e Paolodove si trova ancora oggi.
Dal punto di vista militare, la tenacia e il protrarsi della resistenza degli assediati capitanati dal Bragadin richiese un ulteriore impiego di forze da parte turca e tenne impegnati gli assedianti per un lungo periodo, tanto che la Lega Santa ebbe il tempo di organizzare la flotta che avrebbe sconfitto quella ottomana nella battaglia di Lepanto.
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Namespace Voce Discussione. Visite Leggi Modifica Modifica wikitesto Cronologia. Wikimedia Commons. Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Assedio di Famagosta.Marcantonio Bragadin was born in Venice in  other sources indicate or His father, Antonio, had been one of the leaders of the Council of Ten in Marcantonio completed his studies earning a doctorate in utroque iure.
He initially took the political career in the Republic of Venicebut already in moved to Rome and became an ecclesiastic: on 28 September he was ordained priest. He took up a career in the administration of the Papal States : on 17 March he became referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signaturein April to December he was governor of Fabrianothen in governor of Sabina and later of Narni.
In Ceneda he succeeded to keep exempt the town from the taxation over the near Treviso and in he issued a ban prohibiting the insults to the Jews during the processions.
On 3 October he was promoted bishop of Vicenza. On 16 December he was created Cardinal priest with the title of Santi Nereo e Achilleowhich was later, on 19 Novembermodified in the title of San Marcothe usual title of the most prominent Venetian Cardinal in Rome. He participated to the Papal conclave, As bishop of Vicenza, he held two synods in May and April According to a contemporary, his life was exemplar and pure.
In particular during the Fifth Ottoman-Venetian War he persuaded the Pope to exhort various Western European nations to send men, ships and supplies to defend Crete. In exchange to this effort the Pope requested and obtained, due to mediation of Bragadin, the re-admission in of the Jesuits in Venice  from where they had been expelled in for effect of the Venetian Interdict. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Italian cardinal. For other uses, see Marcantonio Bragadin disambiguation. Retrieved 1 February Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani in Italian.
Legati e governatori dello Stato pontificio in Italian. Roma: Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici. Firenze: Giuntina.
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